Friday, May 20, 2011

The Use of Contextualized Visual Aids in Teaching Vocabulary to Children with Mental Retardation


Public awareness about individuals with mental retardation has increased in the past years. Comprising 4.6% of the population in developed countries including the Philippines, these individuals gained considerable acceptance from the public and have found their place in special schools in the hope to live a productive life.
In line with this, special educators sought for ways in order to provide the best learning possible for these individuals. Various movements have emerged and presented new ways of teaching considering the special needs of these individuals. These trends remain dynamic, presenting new findings and recommendations as results of research and study.
There has been relatively little research on the vocabulary abilities of children with mental retardation. Some researches, like that of Ezell & Goldstein (1991), indicate that children with mental retardation tend to be more concrete in their understanding of words. This tendency to be more concrete may be the result of delays in development of semantic abilities (Rosenberg, 1982) and being lag behind in their development of organizing strategies (Stephens, 1972)
In respect with the above-mentioned ideas, studying the effect of using contextualized visual aids to increase the vocabulary of children with mental retardation is a significant and meaningful investigation. It is with an utmost conviction to the idea that in order to effectively teach these children, teaching approach must be integrated- multisensory and culturally/contextually-relevant.  Multisensory in a sense that the more senses being used, the more learning takes place. On the other hand,  to be culturally/contextually-relevant simply means that learning will be more effective when differences in the learner’s linguistic, cultural and social background are also taken into account (13th Principle: American Psychological Association’s 14 Learner-Centered Principles, in Corpuz and Lucas, 2007).

Mental Retardation

Mental retardation is defined by the World Health Organization as a condition of incomplete or halted development of the mind, which is characterized by impairment of skills as manifested during developmental period that contributes to the overall level of intelligence.
Most children with mental retardation have problems with language and communication (Long & Long, 1994). In fact, language and speech disorders have been found to be the most frequent secondary disability among children with mental retardation (Epstein, Polloway, Patton, & Foley, 1989). Deficits in language and communication have been found to "constitute major impediments to the social, emotional, and vocational adjustment of retarded citizens" (Swetlik & Brown, 1977).
Research about vocabulary abilities of children with mental retardation is said to be limited as compared to other language development concerns. Children with mental retardation have been found to lag behind in their development of organizing strategies (Stephens, 1972) and to use more concrete concepts (Mac Millan. 1982), suggesting that children with mental retardation have some difficulty developing and using semantic concepts.
On the other hand some studies have found that an area of strength for children with mental retardation is that of vocabulary skills. In a study of the comprehension of syntax and vocabulary conducted by Chapman, Schwartz, and Kay Raining-Bird (1991), the authors found that their subjects with mental retardation performed significantly better on the vocabulary comprehension task than on tests of syntactic skills.

 Theories Underlying the Use of Visual Aids

Over the years, educators agree that the use of visual aids enhances learning both to children with or without special needs (with the exception for some cases i.e. visually-impaired children).  Jerome Bruner initially supported this when he proposed that learners can learn through Iconic mode or through the use of pictures and images. According to Machado (2007), visuals and images (pictorial representations) used during instructions almost always improve students’ attention, listening and comprehension and reduces recall errors.

New Blog Design

          I think I have spent a couple of days renovating my blog. I need to do this since first, there is an "increase" in awareness about my blog and second because the opening of classes is fast approaching. I'm afraid that I will not have that much time to renovate this if classes start. What do you think of my new layout? I really hope that my blogsite's appearance has improved a bit. hehehehe...If you have any suggestions, the comment box is so open for you.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Banghay Aralin sa Filipino II

Banghay Aralin sa Ikalawang Taon
Pakitang Turo
Marso 3, 2011

I.                    Layunin:
1.      Nakikilala ang iba’t- ibang sining sa Asya.
2.      Nakabubuo ng mga pangungusap na patanong batay sa pangungusap sa pisara.
3.      Napapahalagahan ang sining sa Asya.
II.                  Paksang Aralin:
Ang Sining sa Asya; Tekstong Ekspositori
Mga Pangungusap na Humihingi ng Impormasyon
Ang Bagong Filipino sa Hayskul II
p. 223-229
Kagamitang Panturo: Larawan, Flashcard  Dayagram
Value Focus: Pagpapahalaga sa Sining
III.                Pamamaraan:
A.     Pangganyak:
( Aktibidades)
Ipaayos ang mga ginupit na larawan sa mga mag-aaral upang mabuo ang larawan ng iba’t- ibang sining sa Asya. Tutukuyin nila kung ano ang mga ito at itatanong ng guro kung mayroon silang ideya sa mga larawan.
B.      Talasalitaan:
Ibigay ang kasingkahulugan ng mga sumusunod na salita.
1.      mandudula
2.      katedral
3.      pabula
4.      papet
5.      teatro
6.      templo
Gamitin sa sariling pangungusap.
C.      Paglalahad ng Aralin:
1.      Paglalahad ng guro ng paksang-aralin.
2.      Pagpapabasa ng teksto.
3.      Pangkatang Gawain.
Ibigay ang kahulugan ng sining gamit ang dayagram.
D.     Pagtalakay sa Aralin:
( Analisis)
1.      Ano ang pamagat ng tekstong binasa?
2.      Ibigay ang iba’t- ibang uri ng sining na binanggit sa teksto.
3.      Lahat ba ng makikita nating makulay at may disenyo ay matatawag na produkto ng sining?
4.      Isa-isahin ang mga likhang sining na naipagmamalaki ng Asya.
5.      Sinasabing mahilig sa musika ang mga Pilipino, sa anong paraan nila ito ipinakikita?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

What is ADHD?

Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate degrees of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

According to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition)
ADHD is a condition characterized by
a.       Persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and is more severe than is typically observed in individuals at comparable level of development.
b.      Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms must have been present before seven years of age.
c.       Some impairment form the symptoms must be present in at least two settings.
d.      There must be clear evidence of interference with developmentally appropriate, social, academic or occupational functioning.
e.       The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorders and is not better accounted by another mental disorder.

According to IDEA
ADHD is under the “Other Health Impairment” category of IDEA. Other Health Impairment is defined as “…having limited strength , vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to  environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as… attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…; and adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

Three Subtypes of ADHD
A.      Predominantly Inattentive Type-used if 6 or more symptoms of inattention but fewer than 6 symptoms of  hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least six months
B.      Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type- used if 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity but fewer than 6 symptoms of  inattention have persisted for at least six months
C.      Combined Type- used if 6 or more symptoms of inattention and 6 or more symptoms of  hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least six months

Symptoms of inattention
·         fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities
·         has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
·         does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
·         does not follow instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)
·         has difficulty organizing tasks and activities

Special Education: Legislation and Litigation

               Legislation refers to the laws mandated by a legislative body whereas litigation is clarifying of the certain legislation through court hearings and trials. In the field of special education, these legislation and litigation have paved the way to various changes and programs that benefit individuals with special needs. These have also served as the legal bases of the practices, programs and benefits that individuals with special needs can acquire through the help of different sectors of the society. Without these two, special education would have been much different.

Major Legislation in Special Education

IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act)
·         the revolutionary law which ensures that all children and youths with disabilities have the right to free, appropriate public education.
·         formerly known as PL 94-142 or Education for All Handicapped Children Act
·         amended in 1997 with the following provisions:

Extensive efforts to screen and identify all children and youth with disabilities
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Every student with disability has an appropriate public education at no cost to the parents or guardians
Due Process
The students’ and parents’ rights to information and informed consent before the student is evaluated, labeled, or placed, and the right to an impartial due process hearing if they disagree with the school’s decisions.
Parent/Guardian Surrogate Consultation
The student’s parents or guardians are consulted about the student’s evaluation and placement and the educational plan; if the parents or guardians are unknown or unavailable, a surrogate parent must be found to act for the student.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
The student is educated in the least restrictive environment consistent with his or her educational needs and, insofar as possible, with students without disabilities.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
A written individualized education program is prepared for each student with a disability, including levels of functioning, long and short-term goals, extent to which the student will not participate in the general classroom and curriculum, services to be provided, plans for initiating and evaluating the services, and needed transitions services (from school to work or continued education)
Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
The student is evaluated in all areas of suspected disability and in a way that is not based by his or her language or cultural characteristics or disabilities. Evaluation must be by a multidisciplinary team, and no single evaluation procedure may be used as the sole criterion for the placement or planning.
The results of evaluation and placement are kept confidential, though the student’s parents or guardians may have access to the records.
Personnel Development, Inservice
Training for teachers and other professional personnel, including inservice training for regular teachers, in meeting the needs of students with disabilities.

IDEA to IDEIA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act)
·         IDEA was amended to IDEIA as signed by Pres. George W. Bush last December 2004
Some Key Changes:
Specific learning Disability Eligibility- replaced the old model of eligibility, which was Discrepancy Model, to the Response To Intervention Model
Evaluations- IDEIA reiterates the idea that evaluations are not just linked to academic performance rather explicitly recognizes that the child’s developmental needs must be assessed, including academic, social and emotional needs. Evaluators must look at all areas of functioning, not predominately academics.
Parent Refusal- if the parent refuses to consent to the provision of services, the school district may not provide special education services and may not initiate due process to force services
IEP requirements- loosened requirements for mandatory participants; short term objectives no longer required(still in question); IEP can be amended without a meeting as long as the parents and the school agree

ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)
·         prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodation, and government activities
ADA to ADAAA (Americans with Disabilities Act Amendment Act of 2008)
·         expands the protection of the original ADA to include more individuals with less severe impairments
·         directs a broad interpretation of the definition of disability as having a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; having a record of such an impairment; or being regarded as having such an impairment.”
·         clarifies the definition of “major life activities”.

Current trends in Legislation
·         Restraint Bill H. R. 4247 (Preventing Harmful Restraint and Seclusion Act)- assist in the prevention of practices that causes physical and emotional harm to students with and without disabilities. These practices include prone restraint, aversive intervention and seclusion.
·         Amendment on the present IDEIA that IEP should contain a strategy to address the needs of the child

Relationship of Litigation to Legislation
·         Legislation requires or gives permission to provide special education, but it does not necessarily result in what legislators intended. Laws may have little or no effect on the lives of individuals with disabilities unitl courts interpret exactly what the laws require in practice.
·         Litigation is now focused on ensuring that every child receives and education appropriate for his or her individual needs.
·         Litigation may involve legal suits filed for either two reasons: (1) because special education services are not being provided for students whose parents want them, or (2) because students are being assigned to special education when they parents believe they should not be.

Major Litigation

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
·         set a precedent for equality in education which was extended to children with disabilities

Diana v. State Board of Education (1970)
·         ruled that students cannot be placed in special education on the basis of culturally biased tests or tests given in other than the child’s native language. This ruling resulted in requirements  to implement nondiscriminatory assessment methods, including testing students in their native language

Penn Assoc. for Retarded Citizens v. Commonwealth of Penn (1972)
·         ruled that children with mental retardation have the right to a free and appropriate public education and that parents who are dissatisfied with their children’s placement have the right to a due process under the law

Mill v. Board of Education (1972)
·         ruled that students with disabilities have the same right to a education as nondisabled students. Financial problems cannot be allowed to have a greater impact on children with disabilities than on students without disabilities.

Honig v. Doe (1988)
·         ruled that students couldn’t be removed from school if the inappropriate behavior is related to the disability. Schools could suspend a student for up to 10 days, but not more than 10 days without due process

Olmstead v. L.C. (1999)
·         case regarding discrimination of people with disabilities in institutions

Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, Inc. v. Williams (2002)
·         interpreted the meaning of the phrase “substantially impairs” as used in Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This case was one of the bases for the amendment of ADA to ADAA.

Special Education: Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and the Underlying Causes

          My first post in special education topics will be about Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. In this post, I will focus on the various causes of this disability. Knowing the cause of a certain disability will enable us teachers to understand its nature and how can we intervene with this disability as early as possible after diagnosis. (You might be a bit surprised that this is actually a disability, different from the common disabilities that we have encountered like visual and hearing impairment, physical disability, etc)

Causes of Emotional Disturbances and Behavioral Disorders

I.                    Biological Factors
A.      Genetics
     Although the particular gene responsible for the trait has not been identified, its likelihood suggests that some emotional/behavioral disorders may be inherited
·         30% of fathers and 20% of mothers of children with ADHD have the disorder themselves (Copps, 1992)
·         Autism has 10-82% heritability
·         SAD (Social Anxiety Disorder) has 30-40% chances to be passed on the child
·         Children of schizophrenic individuals are far more likely to have schizophrenia, and among identical twins, even those raised apart, there is some incidence of schizophrenia. (Crabbe, McSwigan, and Kelknap, 1985)
B.      Psychoneurology
·         Neurologic disease like encephalitis
·         Imbalance in the neurotransmitter or chemical elements that affect the efficiency with which the brain functions (serotonine, catecholamine, dopamine, norepinephrine)
·         Underaroused central nervous system
·         Decreased cerebral blood flow
C.      Exposure to toxic metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel) and pesticides especially during pregnancy

II.                  Family Factors
A.      Family definition and structure
·         Single parenting
·         Divorced parents
·         Large families
B.      Family interactions
According to Reid and Patterson(1991), these include:
·         Lack of supervision
·         Erratic and punitive discipline
·         Low rate of positive interactions, high rates of negative interaction
·         Lack of interest and concern/neglect
·         Poor adult role models
·         Inconsistent expectations and rules
C.      Pressure affecting families
·         Parental stress
·         Poverty
·         Confusion and turmoil
D.      Child Abuse and Maltreatment
·         Htenden(1989) reported that maltreated children are often disruptive, defiant bullies which have frequent interpersonal confrontations with peers and teachers, [while others]are so compliant and concerned over meeting others’ standards that they rarely experience joy or satisfaction
·         Mullen et al(1996) reported that a history of any form of abuse (physical, emotional and sexual abuse) on children was associated with increase rates of psychopathology, sexual difficulties, decreased self-esteem and interpersonal  problems

III.                Cultural Factors
A.      Socioeconomic status
·         Studies have consistently shown that people in the lowest socioeconomic strata (income, education and occupation) are about 2-3 times more likely than those in the higher strata to have a mental disorder (Holzer et al., 19886; Regier et al., 1993; Muntaner et al.,1998) and are also more likely to have higher levels of psychological distress (Eaton and Muntaner,1999).
B.      Racism and discrimination
·         Perceived discrimination was linked to symptoms of depression in a large sample of 5000 children of Asian, Latin American and Caribbean immigrants (Rumbaut, 1994).
C.      Immigration

IV.                School
     Teachers and school can have tremendous influence on the child. School factors include:
·         Inconsistent rules
·         Too many expectations
·         Inappropriate imposition of consequences
·         Negative school climate
·         Unresolved conflict
·         Low level of supervision
·         Cultural biases/insensitivity
·         Lack of identification, recognition and belongingness on the part of the child

V.                  Substance Abuse
·         Children who are prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol are at risk for emotional disturbances and behavioral disorders. According to William and Howard (1993), children exposed to drugs and alcohol demonstrate
a.       marked failure to adapt to the environment
b.      difficulties in appropriate interaction with the caregiver
c.       problems in language, learning and motor skills
·         Infants who have been exposed to cocaine in the uterus are similar to children with neurological challenges
·         Parents focus more on obtaining and using drugs than on caring for the child.
·         Children of parents who engage in substance abuse are more exposed to domestic and physical violence, divorce, unemployment, mental illness and legal problems, and are even victims themselves
·         Children who are witnesses of violence are prone to post-traumatic stress syndrome, flashback and anxiety depression
·         Children lack basic social skills out of profound fear that someone will find the truth [about their parents]
·         Other parents have warned their sons or daughters to stay away from children of substance abusers, thus, increases the prevalence of depression, anxiety, eating disorders, suicide, etc among these childre
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Banghay-Aralin sa Filipino I

         This will be my first time to post a lesson plan (banghay-aralin) in Filipino for first year high school. Credit for my sister who made the draft and revised by yours truly. Hope you find this useful.

Banghay Aralin sa Filipino I

I.                    Layunin:
  1. Natutukoy ang mga tauhan sa kuwento.
  2. Nakasusulat ng mga karanasan sa pagbibinata/pagdadalaga
  3. Napapahalagahan ang responsibilidad bilang isang tinedyer.
II.                  Paksang Aralin:
Maikling Kuwento; “ Bagong Taon na Binatilyo na Ako”,
Batayang Aklat sa Filipino I dd. 92-94
Kagamitang Panturo: DVD player, flashcard, character map
Value Focus: Pagpapahalaga sa responsibilidad bilang tinedyer.
III.                Pamamaraan:
A.      Pangganyak:
Magpakita ng ng maikling video clip tungkol sa pagbibinata/pagdadalaga.
Pagkatapos, itanong ang mga sumusunod:
1.      Nakakaugnay ba kayo sa inyong napanood?
2.      Anong naalala ninyo habang pinapanood ang video?
3.      Anong mga pagbabago ang inyong naranasan ng sumapit kayo sa edad na 13?
A.1 Pag-alis ng Sagabal
Ibigay ang kasingkahulugan ng mga salita at gamitin sa pangungusap.
1.      Humudyat         4. Musmos                 7. Sapitin
2.      Inaasam             5. Nakatutulig
3.      Binatilyo            6. Aatupagin
B.      Pagbasa ng Tahimik
Bigyan ang mga mag-aaral ng dalawang minuto para basahin ang teksto.
C.      Talakayan:
Pagkatapos ang pagbasa ng kuwento, itanong sa mga mag-aaral ang mga sumusunod:
1.      Ano ang pamagat ng kuwentong ating binasa?
2.      Sinu-sino ang mga tauhan?
3.      Sino si Sammy? Ilarawan
4.      Naransan din ba ninyo ang naranasan ni Sammy?
5.      Maituturing ba ninyong si Sammy ay isang tepikal/normal na tinedyer? Bakit?
6.      Kung kayo ang mga magulang ni Sammy, ano ang maipapayo ninyo sa kanya?
7.      Anong impresyong naiwan sa inyo pagkatapos ninyong basahin ang teksto?
8.      Kung bibigyan kayo ng pagkakataong magbigay ng wakas, ano ang nais ninyong maging wakas nito?
D.     Pagsasanay:
Pangkatin ang klase sa dalawa at ipakita sa pamamagitan ng isang dula-dulaan kung ano ang nararanasan ng isang tinedyer.
E.      Paglalapat/ Aplikasyon:
Paggawa ng Character Map
                        Base sa ginawang character map ano ang masasabi tungkol kay Sammy?
                        Natural lang ba sa isang tinedyar ang mga ganitong kaganapan na nangyayari sa kanyang buhay? Bakit?
                        Bilang isang tinedyer, paano ka magiging responsable sa iyong sarili, pamilya at komunidad?
                  IV.             Ebalawasyon:
                   A. Isulat ang salitang TAMA kung ang mga sumusunod na pahayag ay naganap sa kuwento at MALI kung hindi.
                   1.            Natapat sa bagong taon ang kaarawan ni Sammy.
                   2.            Si Sammy ay magdiriwang ng kanyang ika-16 na kaarawan.
                   3.            Si Jenny ang dahilan ng mga pagbabago ni Sammy.
                   4.            Kinasasabikan ni Sammy ang paghudyat ng orasan sa ika-12.
                   5.            Sinang-ayunan ni ate Beth at tatay ni Sammy ang lahat ng kanyang mga plano kung siya ay 13 na.
                 B.            Magtala ng 5 karanasan ng pagbibinata/pagdadalaga.

                V.            Takdang-Aralin:
                 Mag-ulat ng isang karanasang nagaganap sa kasalukuyan. Pag-usapan sa klase kung ang ulat ay batay sa kaisipan ng isang tinedyer.