Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Principles of Teaching: Selection and Use of Instructional Materials

     It has been awhile since I posted LET and education-related topics in this blog. Just recently, there were educ students who conducted observations for the Field Study courses so I thought of posting some principles that perhaps can help them in answering their workbooks. If I'm not mistaken, they are in their Field Study 3 which focuses more on educational technology. I also realized that I have already posted principles about learning, classroom management and assessment, but not yet about the use of educational technology or more commonly known as SIMS (Support Instructional Materials).


I listed here some principles in the selection and use of support instructional materials. I hope that teachers can use these principles and apply these in their own classroom practices.

1.The best instructional material is no other than the teacher. This does not mean that teachers need not to prepare SIMS anymore! This implies that teachers must not overly depend on the materials themselves. SIMS themselves cannot fully teach the learners. There should still be the need for the teacher to explain, discuss and facilitate learning using the SIMS. The effectiveness of the SIMS still depends on how the teacher presents, uses and manipulates these materials  in the class discussion. As the word "support" implies, SIMS are just aid for teachers, but they do not replace the teacher.

2. SIMS need not be extravagant or always "high-tech". Teacher still need to consider the instructional objective in a day's lesson.  Though technology will make a lesson presentation interactive, a teacher should first and foremost consider the instructional objective. The lesson objectives determine what SIMS to be used not the other way around. One concrete example would be in the Physical Education subject. In demonstrating steps to a dance, which would be more preferable and effective: a video clip of the steps, or the teacher him/herself demonstrating the dance? Of course the latter would be better. Notice that even without  the use of technology the lesson can still work with the given objective.

3. Don't reason the above mentioned principle to excuse yourself not to use variety of instructional materials. Teaching also involves catering to each learners' needs and preferences in learning. Each of us has different ways in responding and receiving information. Remember VAK? Teachers may have visual, auditory or kinesthetic learners (and a combination of either of the three). Hence, use various media. These may be computers, TV, projector and even just the mere chalkboard.

4. Prepare your SIMS beforehand. Appealing and creative SIMS usually require time and effort to make.I think we are all inspired by stories of teachers who spend the midnight oil just to make SIMS. This is not an exaggeration but a reality.  Most of the times, SIM-making is a tedious task, but we all do this for the sake of making our learners learn best. If you will be using technology like computers or projectors, make sure to manipulate it first to avoid technological glitches. Also check the power source and even the file to be presented if corrupted or not.

5. Think out of the box. Be creative. Use the materials or inspiration that is appealing to the learners. Make use of your learners interests even the latest trends or popular personalities. If the pupils are familiar and most of all interested with your SIMS, learning becomes not only effective but fun and interesting for them as well.

Actually there are lots of principles you can also utilize. Use your experience since it is a very good teacher. Just remember that teaching needs dedication and passion. And part of this vocation is to give your best to prepare and make your SIMS for the main purpose of teaching the pupils the best way possible.

P.S. It was a shame that when the educ studs observed me, I only used chart and chalkboard that time...hehehe..excuse me..the teacher is the best S-I-M..hehehe...)

Sunday, April 6, 2014

Graduation Reflection 2014

     Hellow, hellow, hellow! Long time no posts! Any updates about me? Of course, I have not yet finished my thesis! hehehe... Anyway, graduation comes once a year and, I can't help but to share my thoughts about another year finished.
   This year, the group of students I had is quite different compared last year. Most of the time, I tend to believe that every school year is like a new season of a reality show. New contestants, new stories, new dramas. This is also one of the things I like about teaching - spontaneity. It is like every single day in the classroom is a new episode in a reality show. Going back to my students, this bunch is less mature both physically and mentally. I find most of them cute because they don't look and act like sixth graders, rather more of 3rd or 4th graders. This I find quite challenging, because they are a bit difficult to control.
    This year, I realized that teachers should not be personally angry to students. They may be naughty or talkative sometimes or even most of the times but as students and as kids, it is part of their nature. It is natural for students to be noisy at times, to play while your are not around, etc. Don't be angry and treat this as a big deal. We are teaching kids, not robots. We must not expect total silence from our students. They are kids. They are humans, so they talk. Never learn to dislike or hate them because of their misbehavior. I said this because some teachers start to dislike teaching because they dislike their students. And they are just dragged to teach because of the salary. It is a hypocrisy if I say that never did I get angry with my students. But always, if this is unavoidable, I explain why I got angry. If a teacher gets angry and students are confused why, they will never get the point or the lesson you want to inculcate to them.Of course, everything that is in excess is wrong, so we need to teach students to control their "naughtiness". But as teachers, we need to forgive the students. We must love them as they are. Teachers are not perfect, but so as our students. Sometimes we tend to see our students imperfections but neglect to see ours. Hate the sin, but not the sinner.
    Second, as teachers, we have an inclination to be fond of students who are smart, well-behaved, pretty/handsome, etc. But this year, I realized that we should also have a sincere attention to those students who are the opposite. I would not say the words but you know what I mean. I have to be honest but sometimes, I tend to play favorites. But never did I make this obvious but I do have favorite students...hehehe....However, I always adhere to the idea that as teachers, we are teachers to all kinds of students, smart or not, pretty or ugly, whatsoever. (This is also one of the reasons why I took up Special Education as may master's because of this philosophy.) And I said sincere because we should not give them the attention because we have to, but  because we care and love them as our students.
     Lastly, since I am teaching in sixth grade, I find it a bit hard knowing the fact that you are the last teacher that the students will have before ending their elementary years. I don't know why but the idea of them leaving and going on with their lives bit saddened me. I know that it is impossible to let them stay for the rest of their lives. But I am just hoping that at some point, I was once significant to them and has inspired them for the good. I may sound sentimental again but perhaps because I consider every student a part of my heart, and not just my memory. Every mingle and interaction with them is sincere and not just because it is "work" or "I am getting paid" mentality. In contrast, I am also happy and excited for what will they become in the future. I think the these thoughts and feeling overpower my sadness of them leaving. I am thrilled to see them grow and become who they want to be in the future. And I would be very ecstatic to see them successful or have grown even better.
   Here are my harvest this school year...League of Legends-inspired (because they are as naughty as minions and as impulsive as the heroes)....try to find me...hehehe....


Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Lesson Plan in Math 6 (Integrated with Values/Yolanda-Themed)

LESSON PLAN IN MATH VI

I. Objectives
A. Multiply fractions with whole numbers
B. Solve word problems involving multiplication of fractions and whole numbers
C. Extend help to those in need

II. Subject Matter
A. Multiplication of fractions with whole numbers
B. BEC PELC II.I.3 – 3.1 ; Enjoying Mathematics Workbook p. 88; Soaring 21st Century Mathematics pp 85-88
C. pictures, chart, chalkboard, flashcard
D. Helpfulness/Charity

III. Procedure
A. Preparatory Activities
1. Review (Mini-Game)
Give the products of the following:
a. 1/2 x 1/3   b. 3/4 x 1/5   c. 6/8 x 2/3   d. 3/4 x 1/6   e. 5/6 x 1/3

2. Motivation
Ask: Have you watch the news about typhoon Yolanda that hit our country just a week ago? How do you feel upon seeing the areas and people affected?
Show pictures of the aftermath of typhoon Yolanda.
Present images of people helping in relief operations.
Ask: What can we do to help the typhoon victims?

B. Developmental Activities
1. Presentation
Present the following problem:
 15 pupils of Grade VI- Aquino plans to donate relief goods to help those who were affected by typhoon Yolanda. 2/5 of these pupils will donate noodles while the rest will give canned goods. How many pupils will donate noodles? How many will give canned goods?
Discuss the problem using guide questions (STAR Strategy)
Search the Problem:
What is asked in the problem? What are the given facts? What operations should be used?
Translate the Problem:
What is the mathematical sentence/equation?
Answer the Problem:
What is the answer/solution to the problem?
Review the Solution:
Does the answer make sense? Does it answer the problem?
Explain the solution using block model and/or algorithm.

Discuss another problem.
 36 sacks of rice will be delivered to the affected towns. 1/6 of these will be delivered to Ajuy. How many sacks of rice will be delivered to Ajuy?

Give pupils the freedom to choose block model or traditional algorithm in solving the problem.

2. Exercises (Peer Tutoring)
Give the product of the following:
a. 1/2 x 24    b. 3/5 x 18     c. 1/3 x 15     d. 3/4 x 12     e. 2/6 x 30

3. Generalization
How do we multiply fractions with a whole number?

C. Application (Group Activity)
Each group must have each member solve a problem:
a. There are 45 volunteers in relief operations. If 7/9 of them are boys, how many volunteers are boys?
b. Shelly has an allowance of P50. She gave 2/5 of it as her contribution to typhoon victims. How much was Shelly’s contribution?
c. Youth for Christ donated 28 boxes of used clothing. 3/7 of these are men’s clothes while the rest are women’s clothes. How many boxes are women’s clothes?
d. Paula had 15 kilos of rice. 1/3 of it were packed in red plastic bags. How many kilos were packed in red plastic bags?
e. A school has 32 teachers. 3/4 of them donated in cash while the remaining teachers donated  in kind. How many teachers donated in cash? In kind?

IV. Evaluation
Solve independently.
1. 1/3  x 27
2. 2/8 x 16
3. 1/12 x 48
4. Anjo donated 50 cans of sardines and tuna. If 4/10 of these are cans of tuna, how many cans of tuna did Anjo donate?
5. 1/4 of the volunteers are women. If there are a total of 20 volunteers, how many women volunteers are there? Men volunteers?

V. Assignment
 a. Solve the following problem:
    Ryan had P540. He donated 1/3 of his money to the typhoon victims and saved the rest. How much money did he save?

b. Bring relief goods (e.g. noodles, canned goods, rice, etc) to be donated to the typhoon victims.




Prepared by:


JAYLORD S. LOSABIA
Teacher I
A. Bonifacio Elementary School