Concept Attainment
Strategy
This allows the child to discover the
essential attributes of a concept. This can enhance students’ skills in
separating important from unimportant information; searching for patterns and
making generalizations; and defining and explain concepts
This can be applied through the following example:

Model Approach
The Model Approach to solving word problems
was developed locally years ago by Hector Chee, a very experienced Mathematics
teacher, and has since been widely used in the teaching of kids math in primary
schools in Singapore (Singapore was ranked 1st in the recent TIMMS last 2001).
This
method is especially useful when: the student responds better to visual stimuli
(e.g. pictures, drawings, etc); tries the conventional methods but they do not
really work well; and the student has not learnt algebra yet and solving the
math problems with algebra is not an option.
The example below is an illustration on how to use model approach in problem solving. (source: http://mathsexcel.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/part4a3.png?w=500&h=416
The example below is an illustration on how to use model approach in problem solving. (source: http://mathsexcel.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/part4a3.png?w=500&h=416
STAR
STAR is an example of an empirically
validated (Maccini & Hughes, 2000; Maccini & Ruhl, 2000) firstletter
mnemonic that can help students recall the sequential steps from familiar words
used to help solve word problems involving integer numbers.
The
steps for STAR include:
Search the word problem;
Translate the problem;
Answer the problem; and
Review the solution
Below
is an example of a structured worksheet using STAR strategy in solving word
problem:
Objective:
Solve 2 to 3 step word problems involving whole numbers (BEC PELC II. A.1.2)
Problem:
Mr. Cruz had P4,500. He spent P2,500 for food; P750 for transportation; and
P275 for other expenses and divided the rest among his 5 brothers. How much was
the share of each?
Strategy
Questions:
Search the word
problem
a. Read the problem
carefully
b. Ask yourself
questions: "What do I know? What do I need to find?"
c. Write down the facts:
·
Mr.
Cruz had P4,500.
·
He
spent P2,500 for food
·
P750
for transportation
·
P275
for other expenses
·
He
divided the rest among his 5 brothers
I
need to find share of each brother.
Translate the words
into an equation in picture form.
P2,500food

P750transportation

P275 other
expenses

?=divided among 5
brothers

Answer the problem
If
I add all Mr. Cruz’s expenses and subtract the sum from his original money, I
can get the amount that was shared by his five brothers and divide this by 5.
Mr.
Cruz’s expenses: P2,500 + P750 + P275 = P3,525
P4,500
 P3,525=P975
P975
÷ 5 = P195
Each
brother receives P195.
Review the Solution
a. Reread the problem
b. Ask yourself
questions: "Does the answer make sense? Why?"
c. Check the answer
I
checked my answer.
When
I multiplied P195 by 5 and added the product to the total of Mr. Cruz’s
expenses, I got P4500 which is Mr. Cruz’s total amount.
Advance/Graphic
Organizers
Using advance organizers is cognitive
instructional strategy used to promote the learning and retention of new
information (Ausubel, 1960). It is a method of bridging and linking old
information with something new.
An
advance organizer is information that is presented prior to learning and that
can be used by the learner to organize and interpret new incoming information
(Mayer, 2003).
I have posted and discussed examples of advanced organizers on the following links:
Games
Games can make math learning fun, enjoyable
and interesting even for a child with dyscalculia. Aside from developing
mathematical skills and ability, it is still important that the love and
motivation to learn math will be present in a dyscalculic child.
The following math games are designed to
develop numeracy skills (e.g. number sense and counting, calculation, place
value,) that are basic but essential skills for developing mathematical
ability. These games are recommended games lifted from the book The Dyscalculia
Assessment (Emerson and Babtie,2010). The games can be used by children with
mathematical disability (and even regular) from any grades (since the numbers
can be modified depending on the grade level).
a.
THE
ESTIMATING GAME
•
To introduce the idea of the structured number track.
•
To develop the concept of the size of numbers.
b.
CATERPILLAR
TRACKS
•
To reinforce the importance of the base ten structure.
•
To compare quantities.
c.
UNTANGLING
TEEN AND TY
•
Distinguish between the wordendings ‘teen’ and ‘ty’.
d.
THE
STAIRCASE GAME
•
To build a sequence using Cuisenaire rods.
•
To develop the concept of comparison.
•
To develop a strong visual image of comparative size.
e.
FOUR IN
ORDER
(Putting number patterns in the
correct sequence)
•
To recognize number patterns.
•
To sequence numbers.
f. PATTERN PAIRS
(A matching and memory game)
•
To
learn to recognize numbers.
•
To
develop a strong visual image of the core patterns.
•
To
develop concentration.
g. SHUT THE BOX
•
To
learn the dot patterns.
•
To
practice number bonds.
h. BONDS OF TEN PAIRS
•
To
practise bonds of ten.
•
To
introduce the missing addend (the ﬁrst step to learning subtraction).
i. CLEAR THE DECK
(Based on the game ‘Clear the Deck’ in
Butterworth and Yeo 2004.)
•
To
practise bonds of ten.
j. THE TINS GAME
(The Tins Game was invented by Martin Hughes,
1986.)
•
To
understand the concept of addition.
•
To
learn to count on from a number.
•
To
understand the commutativity principle for addition.
•
To
practise estimating skills.
k. TENS AND UNITS GAME
•
To
understand the placevalue system
l. FIRST TO 30
(This game was devised by Brian Butterworth
and Dorian Yeo, Dyscalculia Guidance.)
•
To
introduce concept of exchange and redistribution.
m. BACK TRACK
•
To
practice subtraction and decomposition.
n. THE MULTIPLICATION GAME
•
To
understand multiplication as repeated addition.
•
To
understand the array model of multiplication.
•
To
understand commutativity.
•
To
practice multiplication tables.
o. FUN TIMES
(A matching and memory game.)
•
To
practice times tables.
•
To
improve memory.
p. SPIN AND TRACK
•
To
practice exchanging ten ones for one ten.
•
To
explore the difference between addition and multiplication.
•
To
practice addition and multiplication.
q. SPIN A STORY
•
To
highlight the difference between addition and multiplication.
•
To
put numbers into contexts.
Other effective
strategies include:
a.
Cooperative
Learning
b.
Projects
c.
Simulations
and Role Plays
d.
Songs,
Jingles and Raps
e.
Math
Experiments and HandsOn Activities
REFERENCES:
Bilbao,
P., et. Al(2009). Curriculum development. Manila: Lorimar Publishing
Butterworth, B. (2005). “Developmental dyscalculia,"
in Handbook of Mathematical Cognition, J. Campbell, Ed. New York: Psychology
Press.
Corpuz, B. and Salandanan G.(2009). Principles of
teaching 1. Manila: Lorimar Publishing
Corpuz, B., Rigor, D., and Salandanan G.(2009).
Principles of teaching 2. Manila:Lorimar Publishing
Department of Education, Bureau of Elementary Education
(2010). Lesson guide in elementary mathematics. Manila: Book Media Press Inc.
Dimalanta, F. X. (2009). Understanding dyscalculia.
Retrieved from http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/211578/understandingdyscalculia
Emerson, J. and Babtie, P
(2010). The dyscalculia assessment. United Kingdom: Continuum Internationall
Publishing Inc.
Holdbrook, M.D. (2007).
Standard based IEP examples. Alexandria: National Association of State
Directors of Special Education
Internet
Resources:
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