Sunday, July 5, 2015

Curriculum Development

What is Curriculum?
Traditional Point of View
Progressive Point of View
·         a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn
·         should consist only of knowledge which comes from disciplines which is the sole source
·         the total learning experiences of the individual
·         experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students

In general, the curriculum defines: (a) WHY; (b) WHAT; (c) WHEN; (d) WHERE; (e) HOW; and (f) WITH WHOM to learn.

Curriculum Development-the process of planning, implementing, and evaluating curriculum

Models of Curriculum Development
·         recommends that curriculum planners identify general objectives by gathering data from three sources: a) the learners; b) contemporary life outside the school; and c)subject matter
·         after identifying numerous general objectives, the planners refine them by filtering them through two screens: the philosophical screen and the psychological screen
·         the general objectives that successfully pass through the two screens become what are now popularly known as instructional objectives
·         adopt an administrative approach to curriculum development
·         educational goals and objectives is influenced by (a) external forces, including legal requirements, research data, professional associations, and state guidelines; and (b) bases of curriculum, such as society, learners, and knowledge
·         curriculum developers then choose the combinations of curriculum design, implementation strategies, and evaluation procedures that are calculated to maximize the attainment of goals; review feedback from the plan in effect through instruction; and re-plan the elements of the curriculum as indicated by the data
·         provision for systematic feedback during each step in the curriculum system—and from students in each instructional situation
·         curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority
·         teachers should begin the process by creating specific teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather than by engaging initially in creating a general curriculum design
·         curriculum workers start with the specifics and build up to a general design
·         offers a faculty a process for the complete development of a school’s curriculum
·         recognized the needs of students in particular communities are not always the same as the general needs of students throughout the society
·         a faculty can fashion a plan:
a)     for the curriculum of an area and design ways in which it will be carried out through instruction
b)     to develop school-wide interdisciplinary programs that cut across areas of specialization such as career education, guidance, and class activities
c)     for a faculty to focus on the curricular components of the model to make programmatic decisions.
to allow a faculty to concentrate on the instructional components

Reference: Bilbao, P.P., Lucido, P.I., Iringan, T.C., Javier, R.B. (2008). Curriculum development. QC: Lorimar Publishing

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